“Lightning Never Strikes Twice”
This is a commonly used “truism”, that in our personal
experience, is anything but true. This turn of phrase is often used to reassure
someone who has had a bad experience, implying that it won’t happen to them
again. However, as unlikely as it statistically may be that lightning will
strike a specific object, the odds are exactly the same for it to strike the
same object at some other time; both events being unconnected. This same
principle applies to any lottery. The odds of a specific number coming up are
always the same, irrespective of whether it has come up before. So, it is just
as likely that lightning will strike an object a second time as it was in the
What is Lightning?
In simple terms, lightning is an electrostatic discharge
between two atmospheric parts or the atmosphere and the ground. We have
lightning within a cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning. This charge imbalance
can be the result of the rapid movement of air within a cloud and can exceed
1,000 volts per meter. If you then add moisture to the mixture, the cloud
itself, fog or rain, this can facilitate the equalization of this imbalance.
This is lightning.
When lightning occurs, the path it travels along becomes
incredibly hot. We have all experienced electrical wires feeling warm or even
hot to the touch, because we had plugged too many devices into the other end.
The voltages here are in the hundreds and the current, measured in amperes or amps,
and well below 100. The resulting watts (volts times amps) are thus in the low
thousands; think of something along the lines of an electric heater.
With lightning the voltage differential can be in the
hundreds of thousands and the current can range from 18,000 to 140,000 amps.
The result of this are temperatures along the path of the lightning reaching
60,000 degrees. This heat creates a plasma that glows brighter than the sun.
The explosive nature of these occurrences is also the direct cause of thunder.
The Lightning Prevention Theory
Ionic emission is nature’s way of neutralising a highly charged
area, be it cloud, an object, or the ground surface area. In order for nature
to neutralise a highly charged area (via lightning), there have to be three
generally negatively charged thunder cloud
generally positively charged surface area underneath it
path between the two charges.
The lightning rod, which uses the point discharge (corona
effect) to attract the stepped leader of a thunder cloud, is constantly
dissipating ions into the atmosphere. By multiplying the number of discharge
points thousands of times, dissipators were developed to gather the static
build up or electrical charge on an object and rapidly dissipate the charge
into the atmosphere. The wind and circulation of air particles theoretically
blow these accumulated ions into the atmosphere thereby neutralising the charge
of the object. The ground charge therefore is never supposed to reach a high
enough value to be attractive to a lightning strike.
Each of the sailboats we have had came with a charge
dissipator at the top of the mast. Looking a little like a toilet brush, I had
wondered from the start what good they might do. They are stated to lower the
likelihood of a direct lightning strike by reducing the build-up of static
ground charge and retarding the formation of ion streamers. They are also said
to disperse ions (charged particles) to prevent lightning strikes, rather than
waiting until one hits and dissipating through grounding which can still fry
electronics and cause other severe damage. The truth of the matter is that this
may be the case in very low voltage situations in a laboratory but is by no
means valid in a real-world scenario.
We were sailing along at night in
quite dense fog. We could hear thunder all around us and occasionally saw
flashes of bright light to one side or the other. Then there was a bright flash
immediately overhead with simultaneous thunder. We looked around and everything
seemed ok. Little did we know, but nothing could have been further from the
The first thing we noticed was that our running lights were
not working. We went below and found that the cabin lights and instruments were
all dead. We had no power. When the wind then died, we could not start our
engine, so we anchored. We had a small lamp aboard that had a candle inside and
a Fresnel-style lens. It gave off a remarkably bright light, so he hung this
aloft as our anchor light.
In the morning we called for help with our hand-held vhf radio
and were soon towed into the next harbour. Later that day a local mechanic
determined that our house and engine batteries were dead. We had been struck by
lightning, despite the dissipator brush on our mast top. With the batteries
replaced, we were underway with miraculously nothing else amiss.
After the above experience, which
we were told was the result of a static electricity charge, we acquired a steel
cable with a big lump of zinc at one end. We attached this to one of our
shrouds while our boat was at anchor or on her mooring, lowering the zinc into
the sea. Roughly a year later, we went for a sail the day after a thunderstorm.
Before we set off, we pulled wire with the zinc out of the water, the zinc was
gone. The steel wire had melted through where it had entered the water.
Lightning strike No. 2, again with the dissipator on our
After our previous experiences, we
sought professional advice. The consensus was that our mast must not be grounded
to our lead keel. As it turned out, it was and well done at that, so no
worries. We picked up a new wire with a zinc and all was fine for another year
or two. One fine sunny Saturday morning after a night of torrential rain we
arrived at our sailing club to a scene of great excitement. The evening harbour
staff had just phoned in a report of a huge lightning strike in the harbour
that had shaken the hut on the pier and terrified its occupants. The target had
been our boat. She was moored in the middle of a large number of boats, some
with much taller rigs.
Fearing the worst. We all piled into a launch and drove out
to our boat, swinging peacefully on her mooring. Aboard, we found chaos. All
our electronics were fried – their innards we later learned melted. Radio,
radar, chart plotter, instruments, all gone – as were the hand-held devices. Much
of the shipboard wiring had also melted. Batteries and engine were amazingly unscathed.
Thankfully, there was no water in the bilge, so we shrugged it all off, called
our insurance company and went sailing. That evening, with the water being nice
and warm, I decided to check the hull for fouling – something I did with a mask
and snorkel a few times each season, as this could be quite a problem where we
were. Eventually, I dove right down to the bottom or of our keel, an area often
hard to get enough antifouling onto. I ran my hand from foreword to aft and
made a mental note to come back down with a scraper as the barnacles had indeed
grown quite well.
As I reached the aft end there was suddenly nothing. My hand
went right up into the keel. The trailing edge was just two thin, loose flaps
of fibreglass with nothing inside. The lightning had passed through the keel
and blown the fairing right out of the bottom.
That was lightning strike No. 3.
We removed the so-called dissipator but will never be able
to say that this was the reason we were spared after that. As we said at the
outset, he chances of a direct hit are infinitesimally small – much like a
lotto win. Needless to say, when we moved on to our next boat the dissipator
came off the first time I climbed the mast.
Cumulonimbus cloud forming
Head for safety
When storm clouds gather, head for shore. The worst place to
be is on the open water where your boat is the tallest lightning rod around. Drop
anchor in shelter if you can.
Beware of metal
The cockpit is one of the most dangerous places in a
sailboat because of its metal parts. If you have it, engage autopilot rather
than steering by hand. During a lightning strike, high voltages could zap a
skipper if, for example, he or she has one hand on a metal steering wheel and
the other on the metal engine controls or the lifelines.
If you do see lightning too close for comfort, go below.
That gets you away from the metal in the cockpit. You also don't want to be at
the mast during the lightning storm. The places aboard to avoid most are
directly beneath the mast or the boom.
Avoid the mast
When below, stay away from the mast-to-keel area. That's the
primary route of the lightning seeking a place to exit.
Stay away from the water
Avoid any connection between yourself and the water. Your
body is a better conductor than air, so lightning will think your body is the
easier route making you a human lightning rod. If you enter the water,
electrocution is highly probable if lightning strikes nearby.
Try a little radio
An old boater's trick is to turn on an AM (not FM) radio to
listen for static. Small, cheap portable battery powered radios are best.
The louder the static the closer the storm. It will also indicate if there's an
electrical charge building around your boat.
Get sails down early and furled to avoid the sudden, intense
winds at the leading edge of a squall, which will be associated with strong
winds and waves, heavy rain, and even hail.
One expert says: "There is no safe place on an
unprotected small sailboat and in a protected boat there are only places of
relative safety. There is one place that is more hazardous than a small
unprotected sailboat, it's a small, unprotected boat without a mast. Every year
there are multiple deaths of boaters in open boats caused by lightning strikes,
but there are very few reports of sailors in sailboats killed by
lightning." So, choose to stay on the bigger boat rather than hightailing
it in the dinghy.
What if your boat is hit?
The best thing is to have your boat short hauled for
inspection immediately. Many insurers cover a short-haul, and some do not
charge a deductible against this coverage. Seeing where the lightning
came out is critical and can help avoid a catastrophic failure down the line.